Policing strategies go beyond the usual models of answering calls to offer services and more often than not, seek to increase the level of crime intervention, prevention, and response effectiveness. This is possible via practices such as crime mapping, community outreach, crime data compilation or suspect location and efficient resource distribution. Some of the effective police tactics which reduce crime and don’t lead to negative results in the community are:
1. Problem-Oriented Policing
This tactic requires the police force to be proactive in recognizing the primary problems that could be targeted to help reduce disorder and crime right from the roots. It emphasizes on research, analysis, prevention of crime and the involvement of private and public organizations in the minimization of community problems.
This tactic involves:
– Focusing on issues of concern to the general public
– Concentrating on effectiveness
– Being proactive and dedicated to a systematic inquiry which is the initial step to solve substantive issues
– Employing rigorous techniques in making inquiries
– Using the data in the police files plus the police personnel’s experience
– Grouping similar incidents together for them to be treated as a common issue.
– Avoiding the use of exaggerated large labels to group occurrences so that different issues can be known
– Encouraging an extensive search for solutions which isn’t interfered with.
– Acknowledging the criminal justice system’s limits as an answer to problems
– Identifying various interests in one problem and weighing them when examining the worth of multiple responses.
– Being ready to take risks when responding to problems.
2. Hot Spots Policing
This tactic entails the targeting of activities and resources to locations where crime is concentrated, to prevent and reduce the levels of crime in those areas, in the short term. Research has shown that a big segment of any city’s crime usually occurs on a few streets or blocks. This lets the police focus on secure locations in fighting crime instead of going after individual movements.
Although police patrols in areas with high crime rate have a positive impact on crime, the police can increase community contentment and legitimacy, reduce costs and maximize crime reduction by making use of the Koper Curve” theory in guiding the patrol deployment in an evidence-based way. The Koper Curve” theory says that crime is not likely to take place in some hot spots if there’s a presence of a police officer.
3. Stop-And-Frisk & Traffic Stops
When this tactic is applied to particular areas, it can reduce crime. It involves detaining and questioning or even searching civilians for weapons or other illegal items on the street. If an officer suspects crime, he/she is authorized to stop the suspect and question them. If the officer suspects that one has a weapon, then the “frisk” part would come in.
4. Community Policing
This is where an officer patrols and also works in the exact area permanently from a decentralized location and works in a proactive company with the citizens to help in identifying and solving problems. This tactic can be deployed in various ways, from sending a police representative to attend a community meeting to bike patrols to publishing newsletters.
The models of this tactic include:
– Crime prevention & peace maintenance policing- The police should involve the people in preventing crime and preserving peace.
– Communications policing- Interacting with the community to enable them to provide their security.
– Community building policing- Taking the social action rather than the legal action as a component of community policing. It involves penetrating the community to develop relationships.
The above police tactics are particularly effective in minimizing the levels of crime, though some methods may be unpopular. Primary prevention of crime focuses on individuals or family-level factors with criminal participation. Secondary prevention makes use of intervention methods directed at the youth who have a high risk of committing a crime. Tertiary prevention is applied after the occurrence of a crime to stop successive incidents.